Unmanned technologies are considered almost a miracle of technology of the 21st century, although they did not appear today or yesterday. However, it is in our time that a variety of drone models (air and underwater) began to gradually change many things in the world around us. In addition to military drones, scientists, specialists from various industries, firefighters, police, amateurs and professionals in the field of photo and video shooting have begun to actively use them.
A huge number of drones are created not only for professionals, but also for amateurs. And if you’re about to join the rapidly growing community of quad pilots, you’ll probably want to learn more about what a remotely controlled aircraft is, what components it consists of, and what the machine needs them for.
Consider the main elements of a quadrocopter on the example of the DJI Inspire 1 model
- Standard propellers
Standard propellers are responsible for the direction of the drone and are located in front of the aircraft. Although a wide variety of materials have been used to make propellers since the advent of drones, today most mass-produced vehicles receive propellers from either plastic or composite materials (carbon fiber).
Engineers before now since work above most efficient form propellers to _ provide stability flight , good maneuvering and stability flying device to influence wind or others weather conditions . Pilot necessary before each flight in mandatory okay check condition propellers , so how slightest damage maybe call accident or unstable flight . Here why recommended always have with you in time flights spare propellers .
- Pushers propellers
pushers propellers answer per movement flying device in the air forward and backward . Name propellers how times and shows principle them work . That’s why are located they are in the back parts drone , after all them task is suppression twisting moments engine drone in time ordinary flight copter to _ last moved or forward or _ back depending _ from commands from the remote management .
Low noise propellers models 8743 for quadrocopters DJI Mavic 2 series
From technological points view , pushing propellers not different from standard . Them make from plastic or composite materials . They are also may have various sizes depending on from models drone as well have special protection , which will save construction from accidents and protect of people from random touch edges screws . pushers propellers also necessary constantly check before flight on the subject them general status and availability or absence damage .
- Brushless engines
All produced in the last time drones use brushless engines that _ considered more effective from the point vision performance and operation on compared to collector engines . In any type technology design motor not less important than _ all rest components , because effective engine not only provides excellent piloting (in the case of a drone ), then reduces your expenses on the service and purchase additional equipment . How more powerful engine , topics more lasts time autonomous work drone and longer his flight . Power engine also affects on the options useful load , which maybe carry drone : camera and more equipment .
Differences between collector and brushless engine
Excellent example is development by DJI series their drones industrial Destination : Inspire 1, Inspire 2, Series drones Matrix and Agras . Of course DJI has this plan too there is competitors seeking _ release flying devices with powerful engines , however bye Chinese company goes on the step ahead , creating not only powerful but also economical as well _ low noise aggregates .
- Landing chassis
Availability drone chassis _ not always certainly . Some small models designed so way to _ can It was without problems to land on the lower panel or something like her . Other models and their most are equipped various options chassis . Someone _ they remind helicopter skis , others intricate ” legs “. All depends from specific models , her purpose and equipment . For example , drones used for air shooting , which means equipped suspension camera like _ usually get _ high chassis with large ground clearance . Such chassis originally equipped all DJI Phantom models from the first before latest versions . High chassis there are also industrial drones rulers matrix , also developed by DJI.
But the drones _ Inspire series and Mavic chassis present yourself something like legs installed _ under engines on the ends of the “ arms ” of the frame . At this due to low located cameras Chassis Inspire at landing descend below while in flight a little rise up , improving at this review for cameras . Mavic due features location cameras such solution not required but _ but he has chassis add up together with “ arms ” and propellers , turning drones this series in one from most compact and comfortable for transportation .
DJI Inspire 1 quadcopter with elevating arms and landing gear
Purpose drone and opportunity hang up additional useful load under bottom panel ( for example , a camera or cargo ), affect on the technical solutions for chassis . In some cases they are made fixed ( like that _ same Phantom series ), and in others cases chassis may clean up by giving camera review 360 degrees that _ _ important for specialized drones ( for inspection , firefighting , search and rescue , etc. ).
- Electronic regulators speed (Electronic Speed Controllers / ESC)
Electronic regulator speed (ESC) ( others names : electronic regulator speed , electronic regulator move ) represents yourself electrical the chain that called upon to control high-speed mode drone ( and other _ types flying devices , so how this is device in various modifications airplanes also have it ) . By essence , this important device transmits energy from batteries to the engine brushless type , transforming constant current source AC power _ current , which needed motor .
Scheme work electronic regulator move suggests submission ( to input ) battery voltage and supply _ flight signals _ controller ( onboard computer drone ). And here on the output from regulator arrives on the drive unit manager tension . From here it is clear that regulators move must to be flight compatible _ controller when _ designed and assembled specific model drone . Except addition , they must consume current less than _ give away . Calculation same current for drive produced based on from characteristics motor and propeller plus 20-30%.
About Regulators can tell long and them importance for drones indisputable . About this He speaks that simple the fact that modern drones fully depend from this kind devices for normal flight and execution all tasks that _ are put before specific view flying apparatus . Therefore, DJI and others manufacturers drones on the electrical thrust a lot of work above improvement electronic regulators move . At output each new models DJI drone is trying contribute improvements in ESC, about which necessarily informs future consumer , for example , about reducing power consumption and more high performance .
Special regulators speed for racing drones DJI Takyon Z14120
Where same established electronic regulators moves ? How as a rule , these devices placed in a frame flying apparatus . DJI drones have them like _ as a rule , are located in the ” hands ” closer to the engines . Many modern models drones equipped enough advanced ESCs that may work in various modes . And this impossible without quality software software ( firmware ). Firmware must regularly be updated for fixes errors in codes management and also for raise efficiency work devices ( decrease consumption current , etc. ). If a you get one from models copter DJI brand , then to you not have to forcibly update the software because what at output new versions firmware , all takes place automatically mode . That’s why to you personally not have to bring in any changes to the operation of ESC.
- Flight controller
Flight controller performs role maternal fees or even airborne computer drone . If a several simplify his tasks , then flight controller answers per transfer all teams that _ pilot transmits on the board drone . And if more precisely , then in tasks controller included interpretation incoming data from receiver ( receiver ), GPS module , monitor batteries and onboard sensors . Except this , flying controller interacts with electronic regulators progress and themes most is watching per work engine and adjustment speed that _ is part tasks on management copter . But it is , of course , far not all . Any commands – start and run cameras , control regime autopilot and others autonomous functions , – all they sent flight controller . How rule , user not need bring in any changes to work devices because _ this is maybe negatively influence on the characteristics drone .
Flight DJI A3 controller communicates with the IMU and the system geopositioning for ensure high accuracy data in time piloting and filming
- Receiver ( receiver )
The receiver is device that responds per reception radio signals sent drone through controller . For effective management drone necessary minimum four channel . However , usually manufacturers recommend give before five channels . In general same , today on the market presented lots of different models receivers , as well as modifications drones .
educational video on work remote control remote control ( controller ) DJI
The transmitter is device that responds per transfer radio signals from controller for drone for extradition direction commands _ flight and others related _ _ parameters . Like a receiver , a transmitter must have not less four channels for work with a drone , but usually also recommended 5. Yes the same as in the situation with receivers , on market today presented a lot of modifications receivers from various manufacturers . This fact will be sooner all interesting _ those who _ wanted would collect own drone , so as in the case substitutions devices on the models from DJI, used branded products and products those brands that _ have partnership relationship with Chinese manufacturer . Receiver and transmitter must use one radio signal for communications with the drone in time flight . Each radio signal It has standard code that _ helps distinguish on air mine signal from strangers .
Last model DJI Lightbridge 2 Transmitter
- Module satellite navigation (GPS, GLONASS, Beidou ).
Many modern drones equipped modules satellite navigation . More often Total this is GPS module , however on the many recent drones from DJI _ meet double system navigation , which maybe turn on combinations of GPS and GLONASS, or same GPS and Beidou . depending _ from established combinations such drone maybe effectively be used in those or other regions peace . An example maybe to be series industrial drones DJI Matrice 200.
Module ( or combination modules ) satellite navigation provides airborne a computer drone location data _ apparatus ( longitude , latitude and altitude ). Similar enough _ complex , system navigation needed before Total specialized drones , which perform flying on the large distances and/ or perform enough complex tasks in the area security , military tasks or work in the field industry .
GPS Module and IMU Board for DJI Mavic 2 Pro/Zoom
However tasks module satellite navigation described above not limited . With his help flying apparatus not only oriented in space in time flight , but also can in automatic mode exactly to land to the “ base ”, even if his visual sensors and staff camera not work , and communication with the remote control remote management lost . So way , module satellite navigation will help provide safety flight .
Because the many modern drones fly at help brushless engines , then there is on the electrical traction , then rechargeable battery is one from major parts drone . Without her impossible run drone and execute all delivered flight tasks . However , if you manage drone from the remote control ( joystick ), then need remember that _ he too works from his batteries . Battery on the board drone more often Total called flight ( airborne ) and may have various parameters ( type , capacity , power , availability or absence intellectual functions , etc. ).
Battery with function self-heating for work at temperatures below 0 for drones DJI Mavic 2 series
It is clear that different models drones various requirements not only for power installation , but also to the battery as a source nutrition . small and amateur drones equipped batteries small sizes from small capacity and power , which in the end eventually affects on the flight time and calculated useful load . For comparisons :
- DJI Spark – 1480 mAh – 16 minutes fields
- Ryze Tello – 1100 mAh – 13 minutes fields
- DJI Mavic Air – 2375 mAh – 21 minutes fields
- DJI Mavic 2 Pro – 3850 mAh – 31 minutes fields
- DJI Inspire 2 – 4280 mAh – 27 minutes flight depending _ from loads
- DJI Phantom 4 V2.0 – 5870 mAh – 30 minutes flight
Specialized ( industrial drones and platforms ) require more capacious and powerful batteries due to complexity and great volume solved tasks . Hence other _ options sources nutrition , as well resulting from here flight time and weight useful load . For comparisons :
- DJI Matrice 100 – 4500 mAh ( optional 5700 mAh ) – depending from useful loads and quantities batteries time flight and hover 20 to 40 minutes _
- DJI Matrice 600 Pro – 4500 mAh ( optional 5700 mAh ) – depending from useful loads and quantities batteries time flight and hover up to 38 minutes
DJI , like its _ competitors , constantly leads research in the field improvement flight batteries . For example , monitoring states batteries today became already enough ordinary phenomenon . Now pilot in time learns not only about level charge batteries , but also can get information about when _ _ should return drone on the base to _ he not suffered accident due to complete discharge batteries . Except addition , DJI has become release special heated batteries , allowing _ exploit her drones at low temperatures that _ previously It was simply is not possible .
In this relation observed some variety . If a first drones supplied without cameras and at its best case have had some accessories for mounts conventional cameras used _ on the earth , then now situation has changed . Part drones supplied in built-in camera ( bright example : Mavic series , Spark, Ryze Tello). In others case drone maybe to be equipped suspension camera , which can shoot (and even install other compatible ) or same you you can buy copter without camera to which can later buy in addition regular suspended camera . Advantages devices with cameras obvious , because then they turn into flying camera ”, using which can lead how amateur and professional _ _ filming from the air .
Filmed with a DJI Inspire 2 quadcopter and a DJI Zenmuse X7 camera gimbal, “Riders” is one of the best examples of dynamic aerial photography.